Rights of third parties against insurers on insolvency of the insured
113. (1) Where under any contract of insurance effected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter a person is insured against liabilities which he may incur to third parties then-
(a) in the event of the person becoming insolvent or making a composition or arrangement with his creditors, or
(b) where the insured person is a company, in the event of a winding up order being made or a resolution for a voluntary winding up being passed with respect to the company or of a receiver or manager of the company's business or undertaking being duly appointed, or of possession being taken by or on behalf of the holders of any debentures secured by a floating charge of any property comprised in or subject to the charge, if, either before or after that event, any such liability is incurred by the insured person, his rights against the insurer under the contract in respect of the liability shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any provision of law, be transferred to and vest in the third party to whom the liability was so incurred.
(2) Where an order for the administration of the estate of a dcceased debtor is made according to the law of insolvency, then, if any, debt provable in insolvency is owing by the deceased in respect of a liability to a third party against which he was insured under a contract of insurance in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, the deceased debtor's rights against the insurer in respect of that liability shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any provisions of law, be transferred to and vest in the person to whom the debt is owing.
(3) Any condition in a policy issued for the purposes of this Chapter purporting either directly or indirectly to avoid the policy or to alter the rights of the parties thereunder upon the happening to the insured person of any of the events specified in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub section (1) or upon the making of an order for the administration of the estate of a deceased debtor according to the law of insolvency shall be of no effect.
(4) Upon a transfer under sub section (1) or sub section (2) the insurer shall be under the same liability to the third party as he would have been to the insured person, but-
(a) if the liability of the insurer to the insured person exceeds the liability of the insured person to the third party, nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights of the insured person against the insurer in respect of the excess, and
(b) if the liability of the insurer to the insured person is less than the liability of the insured person to the third party nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights of the third party against the insured in respect of the balance.